This was a question I was asked the other day. My instinct ( a hangover from my beer brewing days) has always been to use dark brown bottles which are specifically there to keep the sunlight levels down, but many supermarket brands put their cider in clear glass.Continue reading “Does cider need to be kept away from direct sunlight?”
How to restart a stuck fermentation
Ollie wrote to us to say the following:
I have just started my very first batch of cider, picked and pressed myself.
My question is, I did not use a fermenting bucket – instead I put the juice, yeast nutrient and yeast into a demijohn with an airlock.
The first few days I had lots of bubbles, but for the last three days nothing has happened, I read that there should be a steady ‘blip’ of bubbles, one every minute or so for a week or two.
Any advice would be great.
Hi Ollie and welcome to the fizzy, fruity and ocassionally headache inducing world of cidermaking.
We generally use a bucket or similar vessel at first because a good ferment will produce a heck of a lot of bubbles. The top of the bucket might look something like a kids bubble bath for a few days. If you start straight off in a demjohn you get tons of bubbles gunking up the top, pouring over and generally making a mess.
As you didn’t mention any of that I suspect or your fermentation never really got off the ground. Either that, or your bung has an air leak (unlikely).
So how do you restart a ‘stuck’ fermentation?
I suspect your yeast, so re-pitch with a fresh starter. Thats fancy talk for ‘throw in some more yeast’.
Fill a glass vessel with roughly 3/4 of a pint of water. Add 4 tablespoons of sugar and disolve. Get a fresh packet of yeast. Stir in the yeast and whisk thoroughly. Cover with cling film and leave in a nice warm spot for half an hour. The yeast should be vigourously working on the sugar by now and the top should have a good layer of bubbles.
Pitch the sugar/water/yeast mix into your demijohn. Make sure you have plenty of newspaper underneath as there should be a mess for few days.Do not replace the airlock. Just stuff a loose wad of kitchen roll paper in the top to keep the flies out. The fermenting juice will be putting out enough CO2 for the first few days to keep everything clean anyway.
Once the mess has subsided, replace the paper bung with your airlock and watch it blip merrily for a couple of weeks.
I was in Lidl this week and saw some Kentish grown Galmac apples for sale. I have never tasted Galmac before so I gave them a try and was very pleasantly surprised. As early apples go, these are a corker. A cross between Gala and Supermac, the variety was first cultivated in France and is popular in Europe. The flavour has a pear like quality.
Today (early September 2016) we went blackberry picking with friends and their kids. After half an hours wandering the local hedgerows we came across a large self seeded apple tree that was dripping with several hundredweight of fruits. We took a bite and found them sweet and delicious and in that moment decided that this was the weekend for our first cider making session of the year.
Andy F. has sent us the following email about fermentation temperatures:
“I want to make my own cider from scratch this year. I intend to use a sectioned off part of a timber workshop which is well insulated. I was thinking off standing the fermentation bin on a heated mat that winemakers stand their demijohns on. Please can you let me know what the ideal temperature I should keep the mix at?
Can you make cider from shop bought apples?
Quite simply, yes you can. However the cost of a big bucket of apples, which equates to a gallon of cider if you are lucky can be prohibitive. But if you are lucky enough to find the supermarket our your local greengrocer selling off old apples for a few pence a pound, snap them up and make some cider.
Joe Morgan wrote to ask if he had sufficient tannin in his recipe:
“I have a lovely old Bramley (4m tall) a small James Grieve (3-4 years) and a small Charles Ross (3 years).
My questions are…
Would I need to obtain some crab apples for tannin?
What is the best time to harvest each tree, early or late?
Well Joe, firstly your mix will be fine without additional apples, but would be even better with some apples with a high tannin content. Crab apples generally offer this, and they do seem to be everywhere, so just ask around. If you cannot find any you could (purists look away now) add some black teas or raisins to the brew. This will give you some of the flavour profile provided by crab apples. You might even consider adding oak chips.
As for the best time to harvest, I wait till the apples are falling naturally. Let the trees decide when its harvest time. If not all trees drop at the same time, that is no problem. After all, the fallen apples can sit for a week or two in a pile in the garden. This generally improves things in my opinion.
Subject: First stage juicing prior to adding yeast
I’m a complete beginner to this, so please forgive any obvious errors!
I’ve had my apples sitting in a 23 litre bucket for about 3 weeks now (with a few lemons) waiting for my larger 27 litre bucket to arrive so that I can transfer the liquid into the larger container – ready for the yeast fermentation process. It seems to have already gone through the stage where it bubbles over onto the floor, but this was without any addition of yeast!
I’m not sure if it still fit for drinking, since it’s been sitting there for so long – I’ve at least stirred at least once a day – but not sure about protocol regarding fermentation or simply going off! I must admit, it still smells ok, but the fermented/cidery smell has died down a little and changed slightly.
Would you start again with some fresher apples?
PS: It seems as if it’s already gone through a fermentation stage, since I’ve only cored them so they’re soaking with the skins on.
Your professional advice is humbly awaited
Everything sounded Ok apart from a couple of things. Stirring every day is not such a brilliant idea as you can introduce airborne nasties that may turn your cider into vinegar. You mention smell and bubbles (good), but if you are really unsure taste the stuff and see if it has gone bad or not. Just a tiny sip will be enough to let you know.
But then my real concern is your last paragraph where you say you have “only cored them so they are soaking with the skins on.”
Why core your apples? You don’t need to do that. The process is to crush apples, cores, skins and all to a pulp, then squeeze the pulp till the juice comes out and then just ferment the juice. The crushed Apple leftovers can be composted, fed to pigs or thrown away. We are only interested in the juice at this point.
Sorry I cannot be more helpful this time
Squeeze apples and the juice comes out. The instructions for that part of the process are clear enough. 2.5 kilos of apples should give a litre of juice. But what do you do if you want to stop there and bottle the fresh juice rather than turn it into alcoholic cider? Well here’s how.
Firstly every utensil must be super clean as you will not be able to fall back on the antiseptic properties of alcohol and co2 that give cider makers some leeway when it comes to cleanliness.
You might want to strain your juice through a few sheets of Muslin in order to get a really clear apple juice.
Sterilise your containers and fill with juice. Now place the bottles upright in a big pan of water. We don’t want to Boil your apple juice, but we do want to keep it at a steady 77degrees centigrade or more for at least 30 minutes. This is pasteurisation folks. It the end of the process (make sure the tops and lids are also fully heated) seal up immediately when you remove them from the heat.
The apple juice should now store for up to 18 months. However, just a few surviving spores of yeast could be all that is required for fermentation to start and in a few weeks time you may be unlucky enough to have a bottle of juice explode with the force of a small atom bomb. I do hope this never happens to you.